Because of this work, Taylor gains the reputation of being the father of scientific management. Scientific management methods, as put forward by Taylor, "called for optimizing the way tasks were performed and simplifying the jobs enough so that workers could be trained to perform their specialized sequenced of motions in one best way" (Frederick Taylor and Scientific Management 1).
The formulation of scientific management is Taylor's response to the working conditions during his time. It should be noted that prior to scientific management, the various works in the factory are solely performed by skilled craftsmen who have acquired their knowledge and skills through long and tedious apprenticeships. Having no particular specifications from the management on how jobs should be performed, workers during the period are given much autonomy, giving them the sole discretion on how their jobs should be performed. Thinking that their apprenticeship has been adequate in shaping and preparing for the jobs required, management are often left with other decision making tasks. However, scientific management changed this situation in the workplace by "taking away much of this autonomy and converting skilled crafts into a series of simplified jobs that could be performed by unskilled workers who easily could be trained for the tasks" (Frederick Taylor and Scientific Management 2). Taylor, through his time and motion studies formulated the most scientifically efficient in doing performing a single task which do not only lessen the workload for each employee but also shorten the time that the task is performed.
The main contribution of Taylor in the field of management can be delineated within the bounds of management service practice and organisational management. The main premise of Taylor in the concepts which he put forward is the utilisation of scientific principles in every situation including the solution of problems in business organisations (Frederick Winslow Taylor 2).
Through his exposure on steel workers, Taylor has observed what he calls soldiering which he explains as "underworking, that is, deliberately working slowly so as to avoid a full day's work" (Taylor 6). He observes that the current situation facilitates this inefficiency of workers. According to him, there are three primary reasons which causes soldiering: first, the universal belief that if workers become productive, less workers will be needed causing elimination or termination; second, the non-incentive wage system which encourage workers to work at a slow pace considering that they will be paid the same wage regardless of the amount of work that they finish; and third, the reliance on rule of the thumb measures and the absence of optimal work methods in order to enhance efficiency (Frederick Taylor and Scientific Management 4).
With this, Taylor lays down the four principles which become the foundations of scientific management. Scientific management calls for the replacement of the rule of the thumb work methods with systems derived from scientific studies (Frederick Taylor