The experiment conducted in this study tests the learning of spatial context. This is accomplished by displaying targets within new and old arrangements of distractors. Participants are asked to identify targets within both arrangements. Response time to identify targets within old or repeated arrangements is compared with response time to identify targets within newly created arrangements…
The experiment also tests the effect of music on the learning process. It is commonly accepted and proved by research that loud noise impedes concentration and learning. However, some background music might improve the learning process. It is not known what type, genres and loudness are more helpful than others. The effect on different age groups is also unknown (Levy 1999).
In one scene, the eye sees a huge number of objects and events that compete for visual attention. Humans rapidly prioritize and focus on critical objects and events and ignore the rest. However, it is not known how people select the most significant objects and events in complex images.
Chun (2000) stated that humans use visual context information to find objects in complex scenes. He argued that visual context guides the eyes to select important objects while ignore the rest. In 1967, Yarbus demonstrated that people concentrate on faces and other relevant aspects of scenes. Eyes move more to informative objects within a scene (Loftus & Mackworth (1978), Mackworth & Morandi (1967).
Biederman (1982) suggested that context also facilitate recognition of objects within a scene. ...
They hypothesized that non changing contextual information guides participants' spatial attention to efficiently find targets. They experimented with identification of targets within old or new visual arrangements. Old arrangements maintained the same spatial configuration of target within its distractors. New arrangements contained changing spatial configuration of target within its distractors. They found that even though participants did not remember repetitions of old configurations, they found targets within old configurations faster than targets within new configurations. They concluded that contextual cueing effect was the reason.
Spatial context learning is important because the configurations of different objects are stable with time. Visual context is defined by attributes other than spatial layout such as background knowledge. Background knowledge suggests the presence of some objects more than others and thus gives some objects more attention than others. The presence of one object in relation to another is acquired through experience.
Savan, A. (1999) investigated whether Mozart orchestral compositions would improve the co-ordination skills of pupils. To determine the physiological effect of music on participants, she measured blood pressure, body temperature, and pulse rate in response to different sound stimulus. She found that Mozart compositions stimulated the production of endorphin within the brain, which slowed down the physiological parameters of blood pressure, body temperature, and pulse rate and reduced overall body metabolism and hormone production. She concluded that music improved the coordination of pupils.
The experiment tests the hypothesis ...
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