Thus, all Muslims belong to one community, the umma, irrespective of their ethnic or national background
Muhammad was born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, about 570 C.E. His father, 'Abd Allah, died before Muhammad's birth. His mother, Aminah, died when he was about six years old. At that time the Arabs practiced a form of worship of Allah that was centered in the Mecca valley, at the sacred site of the Kabah. A simple cube like building where a black meteorite was revered. As Muhammad grew up, he questioned the practices of his day. At age 25, Muhammad married Khadija, a well-to-do, 40-year-old woman. At age 40, during a retreat in the hills outside Mecca, Muhammad had his first experience of Islam. The angel Gabriel appeared to a fearful Muhammad and informed him that he was God's chosen messenger. Gabriel also communicated to Muhammad the first revelation from God. Terrified and shaken, Muhammad went to his home. His wife became the first person to accept his message and convert to Islam. After receiving a series of additional revelations, Muhammad started preaching the new religion, initially to a small circle of relatives and friends, and then to the general public.
The Meccans first ignored Muhammad, then ridiculed him. ...
When this approach did not work, the opposing Meccans decided to persecute Muhammad himself. By this time, two main tribes from the city of Yathrib, about 300 km (200 mi) north of Mecca, had invited Muhammad to live there. The clan leaders invited Muhammad to Yathrib as an impartial religious authority to arbitrate disputes. In return, the leaders pledged to accept Muhammad as a prophet and thus support the new religion of Islam.
III. Rise of Islam
Within two centuries after its rise in the 7th century, Islam spread from its original home in Arabia into Syria, Egypt, North Africa, and Spain to the west, and into Persia, India, and, by the end of the 10th century, beyond to the east. There are over 900 million Muslims in the world, making Islam second only to the Roman Catholic Church in numbers In the following centuries, Islam also spread into Anatolia and the Balkans to the north, and sub-Saharan Africa to the south.. The most populous Muslim country is Indonesia, followed by Pakistan and Bangladesh. Beyond the Middle East, large numbers of Muslims live in India, Nigeria, the former republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), and China. Of all many reasons of rapid and wide spread of Islam religion it remains simple of its doctrine for faith in one God worthy of worship. And instructs man to used the power and observation.
Despite the political and ethnic diversity of Muslim countries, a core set of beliefs continues to provide the basis for a shared identity and affinity among Muslims. Yet the radically different political, economic, and cultural conditions under which contemporary Muslims live make it difficult to identify what constitutes