The Principle Of Equality In The Egyptian Constitution

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During the Enlightenment period, political philosophers arrived at a number of interesting theories regarding the relationship between citizens and the state, or subjects and ruler. Protesting against the very fact that rulers had absolute powers and disputing the doctrine which claimed that they derived their powers from God, or were authorized by Him to govern, theorists such as John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau maintained that power was limited by the rights and duties which the ruler owed the citizens and that they did not derive their power from God but from the people themselves.


Resignation of sovereignty by the people to the government was not, in other words, to be interpreted as the people's having permanently giving up their sovereignty or their having done so unconditionally. Indeed, the very concept of the social contract emphasizes the sovereign rights of the people, acknowledges that a sovereign people have given a certain person, the ruler, their consent to govern over them in exchange for his protection of their rights and liberties, among other things. The social contract is, therefore, the constitution which outlines the legal basis of the state as a moral, political and economic institution and the rights and duties of the citizens within, and the state's responsibilities and obligations towards citizens.
The concept of the social contract, as defined and discussed by Locke and Rousseau, shed interesting light upon the phenomenon of modern day constitutions. The constitution, as may be deduced from these theories, is the contract between the government, the state and the ruler and the people. ...
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