An environment is made up of resources. Resources refer to existing means of supplying what is needed or a stock that can be drawn on. Renewable resources are those that can be regenerated at a constant level. This is because they recycle rapidly, is alive or has the capacity to reproduce and grow. Examples are water which can be recycled, organisms because they can reproduce and many others. These resources will always keep on regenerating themselves as long as the rater of use is less than their rate of regeneration and the environments are kept suitable. Non renewable resources are not regenerated or reformed in nature at rates equivalent to the rate of use e.g. oil. There is a special category of non-renewable resources which are not affected by the way we use them e.g. metals which can be recycled. Environmental conservation is defined as the rational use of the environment to provide highest sustainable quality of living for humanity.
With rapid development, there is stress on most resources including human resources in the developed countries which are registering negative population growth rate. According to World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) (1987), sustainable development should be development that meets that need of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs. The biggest problem facing the world currently is environmental pollution. This has brought about global warming. Gorge Philander (1998), says that, global warming is the rise in world temperatures. This is caused by accumulation of carbon dioxide gas and other air polluting elements that collect in the atmosphere and forms a thickening blanket trapping the sun's heat and causing the planet to warm up. It is caused by several factors with coal burning alone producing about 2.5 billion tons of carbon dioxide every year. Several other human activities contribute to global warming. Growth of rice in rice pads has been attributed as one of the greatest cause of carbon dioxide and methane gas which a cause global warming. Animal feacal materials are also thought to contribute a substantial amount of methane gas that contribute to global warming. This emission of carbon dioxide gas, coupled with depletion of forest cover of the world is the main cause of the problem. Human activities like clearing of forest and burning of charcoal are also contributing to global warming.
According to John Houghton (1997), global warming is being evidenced in many ways. Disappearance or reduction of ice caps on major mountains of the world especially those along the equatorial region. There has also been evidence of rise in sea level with fears expressed that some coastal towns and islands may be submerged in the near future if immediate measures are not taken to avert the situation. Continuing global warming has brought effects like increase in diseases incidences and pests challenging agriculture, changes in populations and plant and animal ranges shifts, coral leef bleaching and alpine meadows disrupting ecosystems, heavy downpours and flooding drought and fires. These are considered as early signs of global warming. Its effects has been felt on every corner of the world with famous elnino and lanina periods of heavy down pour and prolonged droughts respectively, the Katrina hurricane in America and other