Race and Ethnicity (population of the US)

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1790 - The first census was conducted by field marshals who went door-to-door through the 13 states plus Maine, Vermont, Kentucky and Tennessee. According to census records online, the census counted 3.9 million people. The population was divided into free white males, free white females, and other persons considered non-white (including free blacks, off-reservation Indians, and slaves).


The American colonies were based on social class and religion, not skin color, for their first 50 years (Adelman, 2003, p. 22).
1800 - 1810 - The second census was taken under the direction of the Secretary of State and included the states and territories northwest of the Ohio River and Mississippi Territory. The count included head of household, free white males, free white females, other free persons (except Indians) and slaves. The count was 5.3 million people and grew to 7.2 million in 1810.
1820 - The categories were expanded to include head of household, free white males and females by age group, foreigners not naturalized, free colored by age group, male and female slaves by age group, number of all other persons except Indians (not taxed). The total was 9.6 million people.
1830 - Blind persons, blind slaves and colored persons, deaf-mutes, deaf-mute slaves and colored persons, and white aliens were categorized, with a total of 12.9 million people. In 1828, Andrew Jackson had made removing all Indians east of the Mississippi central to his agenda, considering them inherently unable to be civilized (Adelman). According to Adelman, race is a concept that was invented to categorize the perceived biological, social and cultural differences between human groups (p. 20).
1840 - The census was expanded to include occupat ...
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