The figure on the left shows this structure. Since the structure of glucose is flexible, it can wrap around each other which causes a reaction between two ends to form a ring structure as shown in the diagram on the right. In aqueous form, the structure is usually found in alpha and beta. Thus a solution of glucose is a rapidly changing mixture of rings and chains, continually interchanging between the two forms. (IC, 2008)
Glucose is the primary source of energy in the human body. Glucose is essential fro humans to gain energy to do any sort of work. Since it reacts with the digestive and endocrine structure of the body, it is important to keep the glucose at a certain level at all times. The human body stores extra glucose in the liver as glycogen, so that when the glucose levels falls below the right level, it can be reabsorbed to keep the human energy stable. Medical problems can arise if the right amount of glucose does not circulate in the blood. (Mithra, 2003)
We would feel weary and tired when the glucose level drops, which generally happens when a person is on diet or is starving or excretes insulin in variable amounts. But when the glucose levels are found in excess in the human body, a medical condition called hyperglycemia applies, which means that there is too much sugar in the system or too little insulin. When the proper management of glucose isn't done, a common disease called diabetes can occur. Resolving diabetes is difficult but it can be controlled by following a strict diet as recommended by the dietitian. (Mithra, 2003)
Emil Fischer developed structures of many monosaccharides on a 2D diagram where the projections of the molecules were written vertically keeping the aldehyde or ketone at the peak (PU, n.d.). The model developed for glucose looks like this:
Glucose is highly polar meaning that it helps in the transportation, has a slightly positive and slightly negatively charged end and is able to dissolve in water.
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