Organizational change: Organizations undergo changes due to new technological, political and social developments that affect them or due to changes in the competitive force. As people may hold different view about the change and the future direction of an organization, conflicts may arise (Mullins).
Personality Clashes: Individuals' personalities differ widely due to differences in their levels of maturity, emotional stability and their behaviour. When they do not recognize or appreciate these differences, conflicts occur.
Differences in value sets: Different people have different opinions, values and beliefs. When people with contradicting values and beliefs interact with each other, conflicts are likely to occur. These conflicts are often irrational and difficult to be resolved (Newstorm).
Threats to status: Most individuals associate their identity with their status in society or the organizations. When an individual feels that another person's acts may harm or damage his image, which in turn may affect his status, conflict is likely to arise.
Differences in Perceptions: People perceive different things, issues and their environment differently. When they act as though their perception is the only realty, without attempting to understand or accept another person's view, conflicts arise (Newstorm).
Classification of Conflicts
Conflicts are common in all organizations and occur when people fail to arrive at a consensus regarding the organizational goals or the means to achieve them (Falletta). Organizational conflicts can be classified as follows:
According to most behavioural theories, people are motivated to achieve a goal either when meeting the goal results in the satisfaction of a need, or when the incentives for achieving the goal are attractive. However, this is not as simple as it seems. An individual may have conflicting needs or he may have to overcome many barriers to achieve his goals. Thus, the process of achieving goals is a complicated one. In the process of achieving his gaols, an individual may experience stress and frustration and may face internal conflict. This is referred to as intrapersonal conflict.
In organizations, intrapersonal conflict can result from role ambiguity. If an employee's roles and responsibilities are not defined clearly or if he has more than one boss who may issue conflicting orders, he may find it difficult to prioritize his tasks. This may also lead to intrapersonal conflict. Further, sometimes superiors and subordinates may have conflicting expectations from an employee. This is especially true in the case of middle managers. Subordinates expect the manager to present their view and