It can also be viewed as a mechanism for optimising economic use of scarce resources such as forests, which are threatened by paper manufacture. As an example, all of Europe now uses 240 volt 50 Hz AC mains grids and GSM mobile phones, and measures lengths in metres. The United Kingdom has officially accepted metres for business purposes but feet and inches are still widely used by the general public.
The existence of a published standard does not necessarily imply that it is useful or correct. Just because an item is stamped with a standard number does not, by itself, indicate that the item is fit for any particular use. The people who use the item or service (engineers, trade unions, etc) or specify it (building codes, government, industry, etc) have the responsibility to consider the available standards, specify the correct one, enforce compliance, and use the item correctly. Validation of suitability is necessary.
We define different ways of organising and controlling each of the different kinds of projects. A general assumption is that it's good to be different and require industry-specific or custom solutions to demonstrate that we are different.
Companies usually adopt standardisation when catering to a huge global market with products equally acceptable to the various segments of the market. While in contrast, differentiated products are made when customers demand unique features or when a particular segment has specific demands.
In the context of social criticism and social sciences, standardization often means the process of establishing standards of various kinds and improving efficiency to handle people, their interactions, cases, and so forth. Examples include formalization of judicial procedure in court, and establishing uniform criteria for diagnosing mental disease. Standardization in this sense is often discussed along with (or synonymously to) such large-scale social changes as modernization, bureaucratisation, homogenisation, and centralization of society.
In the context of business information exchanges, standardization refers to the process of developing data exchange standards for specific business processes using specific syntaxes. These standards are usually developed in voluntary consensus standards bodies such as the United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT), the World Wide Web Consortium W3C, and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS).
Standardisation helps in ensuring that brand uniformity is strong in order to maintain the brand image and loyalty. Brand image increases the loyalty towards the brand when it is supported by the actual service that the consumer receives.
Companies can trim down the production and marketing costs by standardising the various features of their products and strategies to market their products. Research shows that standardisation is just another of the many strategies to enter the international marketplace effectively.
Standardisation is not always the best strategy and often for smaller companies when they need adapt to local cultures while exploiting their exclusive images to gain local market share. (Levitt, 2003, 91)
It is evident that when a company pursue a cost leadership strategy,