The Japanese lost four carriers, three battle ships, six cruisers, together with up to 10000 sailors and number f trained pilots19.
The main objective to capture this island was to have an advanced base for the final assault on southern Japan. The American Army and Marines landed at Okinawa on April 1, 1945. The Japanese opened a furious aerial counterattack, which included more than 350 Kamikaze attacks against U.S. ships and ground forces. Consequently, on April 8, 1945 the Allied Air Force began a campaign to destroy the Kamikaze bases in Japan. (Westphal Jr 267-268) However, the enemy attack continued in its intensity and by June 22, about 1,900 suicide planes had struck against Allied forces at Okinawa, sinking 25 ships. All the Kamikaze attack caused extraordinary Allied casualties. The Japanese did not have enough resources left for suicidal attack at the Okinawa bridgehead. The Japanese lost 7800 ac against 763 f allies in Leyte operation20.
The good coordination f the joint forces as well as the combined forces was very critical to the allied victory. This could be possible because f the good command and control structure under the able leadership f Gen Macarthur. (Coles 576-577)
The Strategic air offensive against Japan by B-29 had been going on for months. The Boeing B-29 Superfortress had been introduced into service in 1944. A successor f B-17, it had a much greater range and payload and a pressurized cabin that allowed it to fly over 30,000 feet. It was heavily armed with remote controlled gun. The new Twentieth Bomber Command was shifted from China and based in the Marianas. Attacks on Japan began on June 14, 194521. Initially the B-29s used to attack the Japanese cities by dropping incendiary bombs. After four month f saturation bombing, Japan had hardly any target left to attack except Hiroshima and Nagasaki22.
The U.S political leaders wanted Japan's unconditional surrender. But Japanese had been asking for preservation f monarchy. On 26 July 1945, the western powers issued a final warning and surrender demand to Japan. U.S leadership agreed that if the Japanese refused to accept the unconditional surrender the Atomic Bomb must be used.
The Atom Bomb Attack. On 25 July 1945, the Strategic Air Command in the Pacific was ordered to launch the atomic attacks any time after 3rd August. One f the scientists f nuclear weapon test committee, Stimson opined that, the atom bomb should be used in a surprise attack on an important war installation surrounded by housing. A specially trained B-29 group, with planes modified to carry the atom bomb, was based on Tinian. On the morning f August 6, a B-29 dropped a uranium bomb on Hiroshima with a power equivalent to 14,000 tons f TNT. On 09 July 1945, another B-29, being unable to hit Kokura, its primary target, dropped a plutonium bomb on Nagasaki. The Americans would have had a third atomic attack by August 15, but on August 10, President Truman ruled that no more bombs be used until further notice. On August 15, Japan announced its surrender. But final