He is either appointed by the senior levels of management or elected by the group. However, a leader can not have all the skills required of the role. The best situation will be to have as a leader someone who is flexible but firm. When it is required, he will let the leadership act to the others.
According to Kouzes and Posner (1995), leadership begins where management ends. The management system of reward and punishment will give way to the innovation, individual character and the courage of conviction of a leader. Management skills alone are not enough to create success in an organization. Leaders are needed to seek out areas to improve. They enjoy challenges and taking them head on. Leaders are motivated and expected to challenge existing paradigms.
The Theory X and Theory Y were first proposed by Douglas McGregor in his 1960 book The Human Side Of Enterprise. In his theory, there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. According to McGregor, Theory X is the authoritarian style of leadership while Theory Y is the participative style of leadership.(Hindle, 2003)
Theory X assumes that the average person dislikes work and will avoid it he/she can. In business, leaders must counteract an inherent human tendency to avoid work. Therefore most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards organizational objectives. ...