Before the foundation of modern nursing, nursing like services were done by nuns and military.
The philosophy of nursing is reflected from the nature of then work and then thoughts. These philosophies have taken various forms personal philosophy, institutional philosophy and professional philosophy. "The conceptualizations of nursing that have developed and of late, variously called conceptual models, conceptual frameworks, theoretical frameworks and nursing theories, appear to resemble professional philosophies of nursing- a professional philosophy of nursing being one in which what is set down, providing a basis for nursing activity. However, the opinion that these conceptualizations are not philosophies of nursing has persisted and continues to persist, in nursing thought with only questioning of the validity of this claim." (Kikuchi, J F, 1994) The idea of conceptualization were introduced for the purpose of developing professional nursing practice and research. It tried to analyze matters as what is good to do and seek in nursing and what is the nature of nursing science.
Nursing theories are a body of knowledge which is used to support nursing practice. Nurses derive their knowledge from experimental learning, from formal sources like nursing research. Nursing models are conceptual models, made up of theories and concepts which help nurses to assess, plan and implement patient care. A care plan is used in a model which is changed and evaluated on a daily basis according to the patient's condition and abilities change. The first theorist to coordinate a role of nursing distinct from medical profession was Florence Nightingale. Nightingale's model is based on the idea that Nurses manipulates the environment to provide and promote patient care.
Nursing theories include 4 categories - Metatheory, grand theory, Middle theory and Practice theory.
Some nursing models include Roy's model of nursing and Tidal model in Psychiatry, Casey's model in children, Nightingale's model, Roper, Logan & Tierney model in Adult nursing etc.
Values laden theory and the fallacy of value free science
A theoretical framework embedded in an underlying philosophy give strength to the theory as a guide to practice. Nurses frameworks have incorporated many values like caring respect for all persons and attentive presence into these conceptualizations and proportions. Values are fundamental constituents of human life.
Evidence Based Practice
Nursing has implemented, taught and studied and standardized Evidence based practice. Evidence based practice refers to the use of rigorously derived empirical findings especially as the basis for intervention and non intervention. Evidence based practice also involves ethical considerations and other dimensions of health. Nursing practice is intentional and deliberate, guided by nursing science and other sources of knowledge, performed by nurses. The practice is to benefit persons and society. However, the actions and behavior of persons change from moment to moment depending on interrelationships with persons, families and communities. Thus, nursing practice depends on the personal and professional values of the nurse. "The process of self-awareness compels nurses to examine their own value positions so these biases and prejudices are not projected onto others, and so nurses do not reject others who do not