where the care may be really longer term, and hospitals.
Basic nursing theories or models, all aim to achieve unity in framework-based
healthcare delivery systems out of fragmentation within the nursing profession. There are
differences in educational preparation and specialisation of the nurses. There are
disparities in working conditions, and nursing framework and theories provide a new
avenue to nursing practice by a theory-guided practice, thus evidence-based practice in
nursing does include this theoretical framework. Evidenced-based practice as per
Standards of Practice in nursing will consider individual needs and preferences in relation
to healthcare whether it is individual or a group, based on explicit and judicious decisions
made on the basis of information synthesised from nursing theory and research (Ingersoll,
G. L., 2000). As a result, evidence-based practice nursing practice differs from nursing
theory-guided nursing practice in that, discipline-specific knowledge is placed in the
context of different theories. The evidence-based practice considers diagnosis,
interventions, and outcomes, whereas theory-based nursing considers the human at the
focus instead of the natural science in the centre (King, I. M., 1990). It has, therefore,
direct link to the perception of clients. The growing awareness of people is gradually
setting the focus to patient-centric healthcare where people seek experiences of being
honoured and cared for as an individual, not just as clients, who live a life in a
continuously changing environment. They desire to know whether their caregivers also
share the same life experiences as them and whether they care for them as whole human
beings. Rather than doing only...
According to Orem's theory, in order to maintain optimal health and wellness, each person not only has need for self-care, but also has ability and responsibility to care for themselves and dependants. This theory encompasses three concepts, self care, self care deficits, and the role of nursing system in this. Self care, therefore, is the ability to perform activities and meet personal needs. These personal needs will have a goal to maintain health and wellness of physique, psyche, and spirit. Self care can, hence, be visualised as a product of person, environment, health, and above all, nursing. It again has three components universal self-care needs, developmental self-care needs, and deviation from normal health. Universal self-care consists of essential minimal activities for health and vitality. The elements known to influence the conditions of self-care are air, water, food, elimination, activity and rest, solitude and social interactions, prevention of harm, and normality promotion (Moore, J.B. and Pichler, V.H., 2000). The developmental self-care need include interventions and educations designed to help a person to return to the optimal state of health and maintain it so that the person is able to sustain health and wellbeing. The part that can be directly applicable to rehabilitative care is health deviation self-care.