Management is essentially an integrating activity which permeates every facet of the operations of the organisation. The effectiveness of any work organisation is dependent upon the efficient use of resources, in particular human resources.
According to Douglas McGregor, the style of management adopted is a function of the manager's attitudes towards people, and assumptions about human nature and behaviour. He put forward two sets of suppositions - Theory X and Theory Y. The central principle of Theory X is based on direction and control through a centralised system of organisation and the exercise of authority. In contrast, the central principle of Theory Y is based on the integration of individual and organisational goals. These underlying philosophies will influence a whole range of managerial behaviours and strategies. One of the most important factors in the successful implementation of organisational change is the style of managerial behaviour. In certain situations, and with certain members of staff, it may be necessary for management to make use of hierarchical authority and to attempt to impose change through a coercive, autocratic style of behaviour. According to Theory X and Theory Y, some members may actually prefer, and respond better, to a directed and controlled style of management.