Cloning is a form of asexual reproduction which involves creating genetically identical genes or cells, plants or animals. The procedure of cloning is done by taking a gene from the animal or human and then putting that gene in another animals or human organisms. Scientists found out that cloning can also make identical twins by using a method called embryo splitting.
In July 1996, a team of Scottish scientists had the first cloning success. Dolly was the first ever cloned sheep. Therapeutic cloning is practiced to clone things such as organs and tissues for patients in need of them. Reproductive cloning is practiced for the purpose of actually producing a human that is genetically identical to somebody else. Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of an existing, or previously existing human, by growing cloned tissues from that individual. The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning; human clones in the form of identical twins are commonplace. Human cloning is amongst the most controversial forms of practice. One of the most ethically questionable problems with human cloning is farming of organs from clones. (Pence, 1998)
Disadvantages of Cloning
1) Cloning has not been perfect yet. The cloning of sheep Dolly had 276 failures before successfully cloning a sheep. With these kinds of figures we should not even go near trying to demonstrate cloning on humans.
2) Aldous Huxley in his book the "Brave New World" illustrates the future with people having total loss of individuality, creativity, and freedom. This is because if humans are cloned then there would be a lot of same people in the future. This would cause trouble because none of these clones will have anything in unique about themselves. (ethicscommittee.ca, 2006)
3) The replacement of dead people: Cloning can only produce genetically identified people. The clone can never really be a substitute for another person. This is a disadvantage because there will be a social threat to the people and there will not be an end to the human life. Also we have to ask if it is justifiable from the ethical side.
4) The threat to genetic diversity and evolution: Clones are like brothers and sisters. Therefore genetic diversity is more and more destroyed by cloning and diseases can be easily spread under equal people. Humans already destroyed the natural evolution process by inventing all kinds of medicines.