The Medicare Modernization Act

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For the first time in the 40-year history of United States, the Pact 2003 "Medicare Modernization Act" (MMA) which is an enhanced form of 1956 Act is signed by President George Bush, and the most remarkable thing is that he has fulfilled his promise to the senior and disabled citizens of United States 1.


When it comes to income that means those who are living from hand to mouth are unable to benefit from the Act. In order to analyze whether it is a step forward or backward, let us discuss the significance of MMA in the light of its pros and cons to the U.S citizens:
Medicare initially was not considered among the major concerns of American national politics 3. First, there was the targeting of Medicare expenditures, which federal officials regularly forecasted to raise over the 1990s, as a way to reduce the federal budget deficit. That issue momentarily heated up the debate between the Bush and Clinton campaigns when Budget Director Richard Darman claimed in July 1992 that Medicare outlays would have to be drastically reduced if the budget deficit were to be substantially lowered. The other set of political issues involved the emergent politics of universal health insurance in the early 1990s both the realization that an extraordinary consensus had emerged about the need for far-reaching change and the presumption that, if elected, Clinton aimed to act on that consensus 4.
The context for the 1997 Medicare changes reflected two long-term forces a ...
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