The rhotic /r/ is commonly used in the American variety of English.
Change in the tone of a word is a common linguistic phenonmenon in most languages. However, in certain langauges, a change in tone can determine the meaning of a word' (Roach, p. 154). Such languages are termed tone languages'. English is not a tone language, since whether one utters the word yes' with a high level or a low level tone (yes' or yes'), the meaning of the word still remains unchanged. In contrast, tone languages such as Thai and Vietnamese employ a different pitch in order to change the meaning of a word. For instance, in the Kono language, words which contain the same phonemes but a different tone mean different things, so that buu means horn', but buu stands for being cross' (Roach, p. 154).
Roach (1983) describes four functions of intonation as he explains how speakers employ intonation to communicate effectively. The first is the attitudinal function of intonation, which allows people to convey their emotions through a particular tone. For instance, if one can say Good luck' in such a way as to convey genuine enthusiasm for someone's prospects, or else utter the same words in a sarcastic way which betrays one's envy for that other person. Prosodic (loudness, speed, pitch range), sequential (pauses, tonic syllables), and paralinguistic (body language) components play a great part in this function. The accentual function of intonation serves to convey stressed syllables. Usually, tonic syllables are used to convey information. For example, in I'm taking the children to the cinema', the tonic stress' (Roach, p. 183) would be on the word cinema', since it provides information which the speaker needs to stress. The grammatical function of intonation serves to indicate the syntactic aspects of a language and to clarify certain ambiguities. One could ask, The exam's tomorrow, isn't it' either by employing falling intonation in the tag question (so that the speaker is merely asking for confirmation), or by employing a rising intonation, so that the speaker