However, there are issues of capital punishment; where people are sentenced to death usually as a result of committing murder in the first degree i.e. the culprit committed premeditated murder and the sentence is often life sentence or a death sentence depending on the country in question. In such a situation, the handing of such a ruling is meant to send an unequivocal message to the rest of the society of the kind of punishment they could get if they committed similar crimes thereby deterring them from trying to commit any similar crimes (Ogalthorpe et al, 2006). This paper seeks to highlight the general correctional profile of Canada. The critique is set to establish the justification of the presence of correctional facilities, what type of correctional facilities do exist, who frequents these kinds of correctional facilities and for what reasons and for how long. Further, the paper shall highlight the policies that support the presence of these correctional facilities and what policies require reform as far as Canada is concerned.
Correctional facilities do not exist in isolation but come into existence because they are enabled by the presence of a codified law against which crime is defined. Absence of law means there would be no crime and if there is no crime then there are no correctional facilities of any kind. The aims of a codified law vary from state to state. There are two types of laws: civil law and criminal law. Criminal law determines the general criminal justice of a given country. In civil law, individual citizens get to settle their differences in court where one is the plaintiff and the other the accused. Prosecution is therefore done by one party as the other party awaits ruling. However, this is not the case for criminal law. As mentioned earlier, criminal law sets the pace for criminal justice. This law defines crime and it is the responsibility of the government to prosecute or convict the perpetrators of the law. The question that remains is what is the aim of criminal justice in a country
The aims vary from one country to another. For instance, in Canada, the aim of criminal justice is to strike a balance between the objectives of crime prevention and control and those of justice. Justice in this case may be seen in form of equity, fairness and protection of the individual rights enshrined in the constitution. In US, criminal justice finds origin in the popular 1967 President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. This commission submitted a report, The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society, which offered roughly over 200 recommendations in a bid to establish a comprehensive system to define, prevent and mitigate crime. It should be noted that some of these recommendations found their way into the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 because of their relevance as far as crime prevention and control is concerned. Criminal justice has since been seen as a mechanism used by government to litigate perpetrators of the law whose actions are detrimental to the wellbeing of the society as a whole. Actually, criminal justice everywhere in the world provides the same function, a tool to define, preven