The amendments have helped in increasing the political role of the president, as well as the process of election. Originally the president is elected by the members of the parliament. The amendments give the right of electing the president to the people instead.
Austria is known to have a weak federal system. This is reflected upon the way that even though the constitution strictly states that each of Austria's nine provinces shall have jurisdiction over matters that is not under the federal government. These matters that should have been under provincial power involve the laws that are already decided by the federal government. These laws include education, financial and judicial legislation.
The president as in many parliamentary system plays the ceremonial role. It is said that the president in Austria has the duty of constructing, guarding and dissolving governments. Since the president is elected by the people, it follows that the president is responsible and liable to the people. In such case, every action that the president does should promote the welfare of the people. In this view, the president is given the authority to assign members of the cabinet.
In Austria, both the parliament and the government are under the pres...
It happened in 1986 and 1971.
The president is also granted with emergency powers. Emergency powers refer to the authority of the president during an emergency which gives him the right to act even without consulting the Nationalrat first. In such instances, the cabinet needs to give the president the right to conduct provisional laws. Nonetheless, such laws could either be void or implemented by the Nationalrat after four weeks.
The chancellor which is in other parliament referred to as the prime minister is the real head of the government and the parliament. The chancellor is elected and can be dismissed by the president; nonetheless, the chancellor shall be the leader of the political party which holds the highest number of votes or seats in the so-called parliamentary election. The chancellor is the one who functions as the coordinator of the cabinet. However this does not give him the right to force or order other minister to act or conduct personal orders.
The president has the power to appoint members of the cabinet and also to dismiss the cabinet as a whole. On the other hand, if the president would dismiss only one member of the cabinet, there must be a recommendation that comes from the Chancellor.
The Nationalrat or National Council holds the power that is necessary to create National Legislations. Aside from the president, the NAtionalrat has the authority to remove the entire cabinet by means of a "vote of nonconfidence". Unlike the president, the Nationalrat can remove an individual member of the Cabinet using the "vote of nonconfidence".
Treaties, laws, amendments and other forms of legislation can only be approved or implemented by the Nationalrat. Also elections could only be legitimate if one-third of