Accuracy and Automation

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The program to improve child’s numerical ability specifically subtraction of numbers up to 100 requires knowledge of counting and addition to enable the child to imagine the process of subtraction which is considered as the reverse process of addition.


It is necessary to check if the child knows how to count backwards such as counting from 10 to 1. Aside from this, the terminologies used for subtraction should be introduced to the child including the symbols and the meaning of these symbols to the process of subtraction.
First, subtraction of one digit numbers without the need of “borrowing” should be taught. Next, subtraction of two digit numbers with and without borrowing can be incorporated. It is highly recommended to use drawings such as shapes or toys to help the child visualize how subtraction is done and to understand the concept of transfer and deduction. Reinforcement may affect the child’s academic performance. Educational toys have been increasingly used to improve the academic performance of learners particularly in the lower levels. For example, studies show that practice or exercise without knowing the reasons for practicing or exercising does not improve learning. Similarly, if the learner does not know how accurate he is in the exercise, performance does not improve. This non-improvement indicates that he is not learning. ...
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