Collins, one of those who participated as a foot soldier in the rebellion, was captured after the crushing of the Easter Rebellion. However, he was released and began carrying out and played an important role in revitalizing the armed resistance. He pioneered urban guerrilla warfare.
He established a grassroots army of volunteers made up of young idealists and poor workers to fight for freedom. Others acted as an intelligence network that looked for information to expose British informers and spies, Irishmen who by working for the British were seen as traitors to the cause of national independence.
This basic formula of forming an informal army, acting in small effective and closely-knit teams, consisting of poor and marginalized idealists, most of them young, who then used violence, force, and fear to intimidate an overwhelmingly powerful and organized ruling government, has been copied by later rebel leaders and Marxist revolutionary thinkers, notably Che Guevara and Carlos Marighella.
Collins realized that attacking an organized force on the latter's own terms characterized by larger numbers and superior firepower would be futile. ...