For instance, Catholic doctrine as formulated by Aquinas differs from earliest Christianity and Stoicism in the viewpoint concerning equality of all human beings. This doctrine greatly influenced power relations in modern society metaphysically where human beings suffer either because of the original sin, individual causality of karma, or the corruption of the dualistic world. In which case, human beings suffer violence, strife, and differences in worldly social status and position. This in return created various and modern castes and stratifications “that have been providentially ordained, and each of them has been assigned some specific, indispensable task desired by god or determined by the impersonal world order, so that different ethical obligations devolve upon each.” (Weber 1993).
These castes were maintained because of the regard for divinely ordained authoritarian relationship which contributes to the kind of modern social and political administration we have today. This in accordance discourage or condemn any revolt or rebellion against the authority as it only means creaturely arrogance or pride against the sanctity of God-built social order.
Meanwhile, submitting to the established organic organization and functioning based from the assigned task will give person happiness in the world and in the life to come.
Meanwhile, Islamic doctrine holds no regard to salvation and thus the kind of 'rulership' rejected universalism that leaves the people to decide upon any indifference to the Islamic regulations.
On the other hand, social castes present in Hinduism justify discrimination and outcasts since the doctrine chiefly depends on person's fulfillment of his cast function to achieve higher chances of higher status in the next life. This can be manifested to the doctrine's affirmation to social discrimination since it believes to the idea that people who were in the lowest castes and sacrificed much can gain more in any of transmigration of souls.
As Weber pointed out, political power struggle evolved to order of legal sate because of its increasing objectification. However, he also pointed that political power struggle in religion's perspective "is merely the most effective camouflage of brutality, for all politics is oriented to the reason of state, the pragmatic and self-purposive sustenance of the external and internal distribution of power. These goals must necessarily seem completely meaningless from the religious point of view. Yet only in this way does the realm of politics acquire a peculiarly rational power of its own, once formulated by Napoleon, which appears as thoroughly alien to every ethic of brotherliness as do the rationalized economic orders." (Weber 1993).
Also influential is the religious antipathy to sexual acts that can be seen in cultic chastity meaningfully developed in place of the various types of magical motivation. The doctrine believes that sexual abstinence is a fundamental factor to achieve salvation. This can be done through contemplative withdrawal from worldly pleasures. Moreover, sexual drive and other related pleasures constitute the most powerful temptation that will only strengthen the hold of 'animality' to human. This religious convention greatly regarded modern sexual act as irrational and are only brought about by animalistic tendencies of human. Acts to subjugate sexual acts legitimizes marriage as a regulatory process for sexual intercourse and used the idea of legitimate child rearing to impose action fiercely against prostitution and extra-marital affairs.
According to Karl Marx, religion depends