Hull states to have observed repeatedly that rats and monkeys perform all kinds of activities that are not drive reducing in nature. Such behaviors tend to have a self-reinforcing effect, caused, for example, by a drive to explore. "Hull produced an algebraic theory of behavior that permitted quantitative predictions about the persistence, vigor and selectivity of action. Hull's theory postulates that behavior is a response to habit and the motivational factor drive. Habits are the product of reinforcement" (Banks and Miller 1997, p. 56). The situations chosen for analysis are high spoilage rates in production and lack of (poor) interpersonal communication between employees.
This theory would not be applicable to high spoilage rates in production because it does not take into account external drivers and satisfaction. Work satisfaction would be caused by factors quite different from those leading to job dissatisfaction. Satisfaction results, according to the theory, when a person performs well, carries some responsibility, earns promotion, and receives recognition. Consequently, she or he will experience opportunities for growth. These aspects of the work content are called motivators or intrinsic factors. A neutral or indifferent attitude occurs when one or more intrinsic factors are not more than partly fulfilled or even absent. Dissatisfaction on the other hand is caused by aspects of the work context, such as physical work conditions, social relations, and company policies. When these are not fulfilled, the person gets the experience of being blocked in his/her growth opportunities. Again a neutral or indifferent attitude develops when these factors are adequately present. It is difficult to predict 'persistence, vigor and selectivity of action' among factory workers if they dissatisfied with insensitive schemes and management support (Banks and Miller, 1997). Outcomes actually received provide them with more or less satisfaction, depending among other things on the effort they had to exert and the extent to which outcomes received coincide with what they aspired. This result--the relation between outcomes received and the degree of satisfaction--is fed back to both motive and behavior. High spoilage rates can be caused by low level of skills and knowledge, low level of professionalism and inadequate. A person can be motivated but he/she can feel dissatisfaction caused by lack of skills and training. At the workplace, many activities are not aimed at drive reduction or at achieving homeostasis (Frey and Osterloh, 2001).
Hull's theory is not applicable to poor interpersonal communication between employees. Hull admits that motivation stemmed from physiological need deprivation which "drove" organisms to engage in random activity until, by chance, the need is satisfied and the drive is thus reduced. On subsequent occasions, cues in the situation would be recalled so that organisms would take suitable action rather than engage in random trial and error. The difficulty with this theory is that not all motivation stems from physiological needs (e.g., curiosity, self-efficacy). Second, not all need deprivation leads to an increase in drive. Third, partial need satisfaction sometimes leads to increased drive. Finally, organisms, including people, often are