StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

Criminal Theories - Essay Example

Nobody downloaded yet

Extract of sample
Criminal Theories

Social organizations are so set up that crime is not required to obtain the essential necessities of life-food, sex satisfaction, the gratification of primary emotional urges. This is the theoretical assumption of our social philosophy, our constitutions, and criminal codes. But social reality often falls short of these ideal expectations.
The most popular theories used to explain crime are Strain Theory and Social Learning Theory. The strain theory was developed by Robert Merton in the 1940's. this theory states that social stress has a dominant impact on behavior of individuals. The loss of social cohesion leads to criminal behavior and isolation form society by an individual. Five reactions to social stress are conformity, ritualism, innovation, ret realism and rebellion. People who experience social stress of this sort must be expected to commit crimes when confronted by an average or even subnormal degree of environmental pressure (Spalek 2005). As long as this disposition has not undergone a change, a sequence of criminal acts must be anticipated. Many of our criminals, endowed by nature with a loosely suspended reactivity, become genuine criminals by recurrence. They acquire abnormal touchiness by the grinding effects of repeated crime and repeated punishment. This theory is important for police and fire services, emergency etc, to understand human behavior and possible consequences of social stress factors (Hellman and Alper 1997).
Social learning theory was developed by Bandura in 1970. This theory is based on psychological concepts and explanations which determine behavior of a person as socially learned. Paramour is learned while overriding actions and communication of other people, their relations and interaction patterns,. According to this theory, criminal behavior is also learned by individuals surrounded by other criminals. Social life consists of incidental stimuli, yet always revolving around the average quantity that the man in the street is able to endure. That group which responds by criminal deeds to minor stimuli is likely to have trouble all the time. In contrast, those who succumb only to extreme pressure of outside forces will commit offenses only under these rare and exceptional circumstances. They are the emergency offenders; the others are the everyday criminals. This theory is important for social workers as it allows them to understand causes of criminal behavior and possible outcomes of their decisions and social programs (Spalek 2005).
Cultural conflict theory was developed by Sellin in 1940. This theory is based on cultural differences and racial differences which can lead to a conflict between two or more groups of people. The theory explains that different norms and values may lead to deviant behavior. In its turn, this behavior can lead to criminal behavior under certain conditions. Group life affords an accretion of strength. No wonder that the same device which socially is a help may bring about new social trouble when groups clash with groups, or when minor units, families, crowds, or neighborhoods run counter to the demands of the supreme unit, the state. This theory is important for social workers as it explains possible consequences of cultural conflict and causes of deviant behavior based on racial differences and racism. A group comes into existence when at least one other person ...Show more

Summary

A theory aims at analyzing a composite phenomenon by splitting it into primary elements. A good theory will be able to display these simpler components and to show that their recurring interaction will produce similar results under similar conditions, diverse results under changed conditions…
Author : molly58
Criminal Theories essay example
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"Criminal Theories"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Check these samples - they also fit your topic

Purposes of Criminal Sentencing
are informed of the laws, which should be followed (Purpose of, 2004). Punishment is a complex concept that is not limited to moral or philosophical considerations (Garland, 1990, as cited in Purpose of, 2004), thus, theorists from different disciplines (sociologists, moral philosophers, criminologists) contribute their theoretical discourse to understand its complexities (Purpose of, 2004).
3 pages (750 words) Essay
The Retributivist and Utilitarian Theories for Justification of Criminal Punishment
In order to compel obedience violation of the code entailed consequences adverse to the offender. To punish the errant individual for punishment’s sake is not the purpose of the penal sanction; rather, what the law desires is for all to abide by the law and therefore maintain social order.
6 pages (1500 words) Essay
Theories of the Criminal Mind
First are those who have high self control and the second are those who have low self control. Hirschi states that self control develops at a very young age of around seven or eight and the level of control that an individual has over himself, continues to be of same level at later stages in life (Andrews, 2010, p.109).
3 pages (750 words) Essay
Criminal Theories of Crime
What is it about that approach that strikes you as useful in explaining crime or delinquency? Crime is increasing in our society. We often ask ourselves "why?". There are many reasons. Firstly the law isnt strict enough for criminals, so many of them arent
12 pages (3000 words) Essay
Theories
There are many concepts in the deterrence model such as general deterrence, which aims more at the crime than the criminal and it deters the crime in a manner of issuing a law against such an act so that it
8 pages (2000 words) Essay
Purposes of Criminal Sentencing
does not approve of the harm he or she has endured, d) the penalty will discourage others from committing the same act, d) it protects society from criminal elements, e) it gives a chance for the convict to amend the harm done, and f) it guarantees that members of society are
3 pages (750 words) Essay
White-collar crime and criminal theories
The theory stipulates that certain factors within the institution can be used as the basis upon which white-collar crime can be explained. There is a
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Domestic violence and criminal theories
Psychological theories to domestic violence have highlighted diverse psychopathologies within the perpetrator, inclusive of elements such as self-esteem, antisocial tendencies, the lack of impulse control, and the impacts of
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Theories of criminal behaviour
However, by much the same token, the realities that merchant discusses are ultimately cultural. Effectively, even though structural constraints
7 pages (1750 words) Essay
Critically analyse the Criminological theories and media representation of crime/ criminal justice- IN REGARDS TO THE BOSTON BOMBINGS ( find a news article to use)
When there are life threatening situations like criminal cases, people will always be eager to know the exact culprit, their whereabouts and other
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Hire a pro to write
a paper under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Your email
YOUR PRIZE:
Apply my DISCOUNT
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment