If before customers have been satisfied just with the conformation of quality of products and services, now they would like to get the conformation that production of the things/services they pay for is organized in the way, which indeed ensure the pronounced quality.
The quality has become the one of the most popular slogans at the end of twentieth - the beginning of the twenty first century. The quality of products and services. The quality of technologies and business processes related to providing of products and services. The quality, which really exists and what is even more important can be proved as it properly documented.
Constant improvement of production quality is one of determinant conditions of raise of its competitiveness on the market and growth of production efficiency. Not without reason in countries with developed industry majority of firms and companies use different kinds of systems of quality management. Let us consider four stages of evolution of production quality approaches.
First of them is a stage of rejection (till 20th years of the last century). According to this approach in order to provide a consumer products congruent to accepted standards, special attention should be paid to elimination of rejects. Wide spread of this concept has led to unreasonable growth of supervising personnel. Up to 40 and more percent of strength of workers involved in manufacture, that in its turn has caused irrational increase of expenses for quality management and, hence, has lowered efficiency of production.
As a result in twenties the attention of managers has moved from rejection of production in the process of its yield to quality control in the process of manufacture. The most significant role of this stage was played by Mr. Shuhart, Western Electric company's employee, who suggested to apply statistical methods (known now as Shuhart control charts), which allowed to increase qualitative products yield in the process of production. However improvement of separately taken process has been often restrained by inefficiency of other fields of companies' activity.
This problem has been solved owing to activity of Japan manufacturers who, having collided with a strong competition from the side of foreign products, have decided to take steps for improvement of quality at simultaneous decrease of net cost. They have invited American experts Deming and Juran, who worked the program consisted of 14 items, and based on improvement of entire company's management system, on direct participation of management in all quality issues of company, and on stimulation of personnel to qualitative labour activity. It appeared a 'Zero Defect' concept.
New approaches have led to growth of quality produced goods and decrease of expenses for their manufacturing. However the qualitative product still was understood as production being congruent with norms, established by the manufacturer, instead of by consumers. In this connection the high-quality goods sometimes did not go through. From the middle of 60th of twentieth century manufacturers were focused on better satisfaction of consumers' demands. At this stage appeared the theory of reliability and system of the