The city Dublin, founded as a Viking settlement, the city has been Ireland's primary city for most of the island's history since medieval times. Today, it is an economic, administrative and cultural centre for the island of Ireland, and has one of the fastest growing populations of any European capital city. The economic boom years have led to a sharp increase in construction, which is now also a major employer, especially for immigrants. Redevelopment is taking place in large projects such as Dublin Docklands, Spencer Dock and others, transforming once run-down industrial areas in the city centre. This would have not been possible if there had not been strategic planning with visionary economic ambitions. Hence, the supreme justification of planning lies with its expected output. Otherwise no economy would accomplish its strategic design based on the available resources and its management.
In the 1920s and early 1930s, the Republic of Ireland pursued a low-tax, low-spending, non-interventionist approach under the government of W. T. Cosgrave and Cumann na nGaedhael, focused mainly on agriculture, livestock farming being of primary importance. The only notable expense the government went to during this time was for the rural electrification scheme, which saw 5,000,000 being spent constructing the Ardnacrusha hydroelectric power station on the river Shannon. During this period, 97% of trade was done with Britain. This government favored free trade. However, this proved inadequate after the Wall Street Crash of 1929. Ireland, as we know, is the third largest island in Europe and the twentieth largest island in the world. Politically, the Republic of Ireland covers five sixths of the island, with Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom, covering the remainder in the northeast. According to Government census carried out in 2007 the population of the island is slightly under six million with almost 4.25 million in the Republic of Ireland, 1.7 million in Greater Dublin and an estimated 1.75 million in Northern Ireland, 0.6 million in Greater Belfast. This is a significant increase from a modern historical low in the 1960s, but still much lower than the peak population of over 8 million in the early 19th century, prior to the Great Famine. In 1932, Eamonn De Valera's Fianna Fil party defeated Cosgrave's party with a solid majority. De Valera's policy was of economic nationalism, a belief in self-sufficiency, and attempted industrialization. The economic war resulted in widespread hardship for Irish farming, which was the backbone of the economy, and which relied on exports to English cities for a market. The tariffs resulted in price increases for many essential manufactured goods, and an increase in the cost of living. High unemployment in richer English speaking countries made emigration from Ireland less of an option, decreasing wages. Northern Ireland experienced a boom during World War II, as a result of demand for its principal industries, shipbuilding and linen making, and got a lot of support from the British government thereafter. Purpose built industrial estates was developed in most large towns. Rural Electrification, the division of large estates, and agricultural scientific education resulted in dramatic increases in agricultural output in the 1960s. In 1972, secondary level education was made free and compulsory. The Republic applied to join the European