At the same time, people represent the highest single cost figure, they also are considered to be the most unpredictable, difficult to control, and they are by far the one critical factor that nothing much can be done about. Much of the industry have turned its energies to solving more technical issues and has turned away from dealing with human factors as the primary key to improving profit. (Gerry, 45-57)
Motivation is the key factor in influencing humans to work better, so an increase in motivation will result in higher productivity and more profit, which is the ultimate goal of the construction industry. Understanding and having knowledge about motivation theories can help to create a motivational atmosphere, and application of these theories can result in achieving higher productivity. The leadership style of a manager has a lot of influence on the motivation of workers. Construction is still considered as a tough guys business. Most construction managers and supervisors consider a democratic leadership style as a weakness. However, research has proved that democratic supervisors have achieved higher performance and better results than any other leadership style. (Iain, 78-85)
Motivation is defined as, "a person's active participation in and commitment to achieving the prescribed results". (Gerry, 45-57) The concept of motivation is somewhat abstract, different strategies produce different result at different times, and there is no single strategy can produce guaranteed favorable results all the time. One of the difficulties in motivating workers is that they all are different and react differently to the same kind of change or action. Many motivation researchers agreed that managers can create a positive motivational atmosphere that can help in motivating workers for higher productivity, but they will likely not motivate everyone, because everyone is motivated by different things. Most companies are looking into ways to improve efficiency, productivity, and quality. The question is how to make workers work more productively This is a question of fundamental importance to any manager. The answer to this question is both complex and vague. Flannes and Levin (2001) explained it by saying, "the project manager must effectively and comfortably wear many different hats when leading a project". (Levin, 2001)
A construction manager's job is to get work done by the workforce. The construction manager's leadership style has a significant role in workforce motivation. Researchers have identified the major leadership styles as, laissez-faire, democratic, and autocratic. According to behavioral scientists, the democratic leadership style has achieved higher productivity and effectiveness.
Concept of Motivation
Concepts of motivation are somewhat abstract. To analyze factors that influence motivation, five motivation theories will be discussed in detail in this paper. Figure 1 shows a conceptual model of motivation. (Gerry, 45-57) At point A, a person has needs and tries to fulfill those needs. At point B, the person finds the sources of fulfilling those needs. At point C, he engages or motivates himself to achieve tasks to fulfill his needs. At point D, once he achieves his goal, new needs or variations of those original needs will be