Within the context of the stated, one of the primary challenges to inclusion is scepticism and the attitude of general education teachers. The said challenges are amply evidenced in the case study, whereby two of John's teachers are, to some degree, do not understand why John should be included in their classes, of what possible benefit his inclusion could be and how to assess his learning or progress. Needless to say, John's cognitive, if not motor, impairment has the potential to contribute to the said scepticism. At the same time, John's willingness to participate and the obvious enthusiasm he expressed during history classes underscore the degree to which inclusion in GE classes has the potential to constructively contribute to John's academic development. This potential can only be realized, however, if inclusive values are promoted and John's teachers organize and deliver instructions.
As indicated in the case study, two of John's teachers are somewhat opposed to inclusion, these being Mr. Johnson and Mr. Hardy; two are ambivalent, these being Mrs. Smith and Ms. Fuquay, in that while they are not opposed to John's inclusion, do not appear willing to really go out of their way to accommodate him. In fact, apart from Mr. Eagerhart who is working with a special educator and teaching to a primarily special needs group, only Ms. Chang is enthusiastic. The implication here is that across John's classes, there are varying attitudes towards his inclusion, thereby underscoring the imperatives of promoting inclusive values. The promotion of inclusive values, as will be illustrated through reference to the relevant literature, is predicated on the school's embracing inclusivity.
A positive and supportive school philosophy towards inclusion and students with disabilities is crucial for a successful inclusion program (Baird, 1990; Emerson & Maddox, 1997; Salisbury et al., 1993; Simpson, Myles & Simpson, 1997; Stainback et al., 1992; Webber, 1997). Thus, a positive classroom climate should be established. A positive classroom climate is one that is accepting of individual differences and promotes the idea that all students, including students with disabilities, should have the same access to knowledge, growth, achievement, success and belonging (Webber). When teachers and faculty communicate about a student with a disability, he or she should be referred to by name, grade level or subject area without mention of a disability label (Montie et al., 1992).
According to Simpson et al. (1997), inclusion programs can be successful only to the extent that they foster an educational environment in which students with disabilities are socially integrated and experience acceptance. However, they