Job analysis differentiates on job from the other, in an organization, and is based on observation and study. It is also referred to as job review or job classification. Job analysis provides the basic foundation for many of the HR activities. The analysis involves compiling a detailed description of tasks, determining the relationship of the job to technology and to other jobs and examining the knowledge, qualifications or employment standards, accountabilities and other incumbent requirements (Henderson, 1993). In short, job analysis is a recording of all the activities involved in a hob and the skill and knowledge requirements of the performer of the job.
Job analysis provides the necessary inputs for a number of HR activities like recruitment, selection, job design, estimating job worth, training, an appraisal. These activities depend on job analysis and its end products for their own functioning. For example, job description and job specification - the end product of a job analysis - form the basis for the recruitment. They help in evaluating a candidate against the requirements of the job and selecting the most suitable one. Similarly, job analysis provides inputs for training. While training employees for a particular position, the parameters on which the employees need to be trained can be obtained from job analysis. Job analysis also helps management in evaluating the relative worth of each job, which would be one of the basic inputs in designing the compensation system.
Job analysis plays a key role in designing and managing the performance appraisal system in an organization. It helps in identifying the key responsibility areas (KRAs) for a position and then setting goals or objectives for the appraisal period (The ICFAI Center for Management Research (ICMR), 2004). This forms the basis for the evaluation of an employee's performance. A comparison of the job specifications arrived at, at the end of a job analysis, with the existing competencies of an employee, helps in identifying his training needs. Thus, job analysis contributes either directly or indirectly to almost all the fields of human resource management.
Process of Job Analysis
The process of analyzing a job consists of the following basic steps.
Information Gathering - The first step in job analysis is to gather all the necessary information. This includes information on the organization structure; the role of the job in relation to other jobs in the organization; the class of jobs to which the job belongs; and a detailed description of the activities and responsibilities involved in the job.
Job-Specific competency Determination - Based on study and observation, the competencies required for the job are identified. This can also be done with inputs from the employees in jobs being analyzed.
Developing a Job Description - A description of the tasks, responsibilities, duties and functions of the job is prepared. This forms the job description.
Developing a Job-specification - the job specification provides a complete list of competencies and qualifications required to match the job description (Wayne, 1998). This is also prepared based on study, comparison or direct inputs from the job-holders.
Job Analysis Methods
There are different methods of job analysis. These can be broadly classified as given below:
This method is simple and can be used in conjunction with other methods of job an