Scale refers to the size of organizations that are divided into sub-compartments by specialized work and labour division resulting in indifference towards social bondages and enhancing independent thinking among self-centred individuals. Money acts as a large divide forcing quantification of social qualities through calculative mind set aiming for financial independence.
The model of community, in contrast, campaigns for strong family ties and existence of neighbourhood relations on the basis of empirical research from different places. The theory can be examined from two angles. The first case deals with the social networks that are formed, based on gender or sex. While housewives form neighbourhood networks while accomplishing their responsibilities of reproduction and bringing up the family, men folks move in external networks that may relate to work. Second case is the Gan's (1962, 1968) outlook which believes in non-generalization on the basis of place, no influence of the number of individuals or heterogeneity on social nature. Another variation of the same thesis is provided by Fischer (1981, 1982) who advocates similarity of social networks or communities, only difference being on the basis of formation - Traditional, based on family ties, church and neighbourhood or work, social organizations and associations.
The Model and Lives of Ordinary People
Urban life can be adequately explained with the help of four dimensions, namely, family and kinship, gender, work and place. The modern urban life has the concept of nuclear or single parent families with relatively weak links with the kinship and a marked delineation between home and outside life. Unlike modernity and community models, influence of urban life on women is considered under the gender dimension. Apart from the primary housewife role, women's participation in public and labour market is given its due recognition. The work dimension accounts for the family ties at home by means of sharing of responsibilities by both the sex and examines social impact in terms of time spent at work location, togetherness of the co-workers and the concept of "we", that is, the team work. Finally, the fourth dimension relates to the structural environment like, building, roads etc, general acquaintance within a locality or "feel at home" factor and emotional or sentimental attachment.
Non Deterministic Approach: A Triad of a Theory of Practice
A non-deterministic model consists of three inter-related aspects namely Routinisation, Intentionality strategy and Communication group. Routinisation refers to the day to day organized and fixed duration activities, governed by socially accepted norms and providing a sense of security, in terms of robust psychological security system, formed by means of perfection achieved through continuous practice. Intentionality is the basic human characteristic. Intentionality strategy is socially accepted as life strategies and reflexivity. Life strategy relates to household work strategies that are manifestation of human intention for the future about practices that can be