The rent of a warehouse where these pencils are stored is $100; hence it is a fixed cost. $100 would still need to be paid whether 10 pencils are stored there or 1000 pencils. Thus with a change in production, the fixed costs remain unmoved.
Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) analysis is a managerial accounting tool that helps to identify a relationship between the cost, profit and sales volume. It is used to 1) determine the level of output required to achieve any target profit level or 2) to find the impact changes in costs to the profitability. (Mowen & Hansen, 2005)
In CVP analysis, 'break even' means to produce goods at such a quantity where there is no-profit and no-loss. It is a position where the company incurs exactly the same amount that it generates from the sales. (Mowen & Hansen, 2005)
A direct cost is that cost that can be directly attributable to a specific unit of product or with a specific operation relating to production. On the other hand, an indirect cost is a fixed or overhead cost that does not relate to the production of a particular item and is incurred even when there is no output. (PHB, 2005)
The core activity of an accounting teaching class is to educate the students. Therefore all those items that directly relate to the educational process of accounting would be direct costs and those that do not relate to the educational process of accounting would be treated as indirect costs. The salary paid to the accounting teacher and the costs of accounting books will be direct costs since they directly relate to the teaching of the accounting course. The costs of lighting, electricity, janitorial services, etc. would be indirect costs since they just aid in the teaching process but are not directly related to teaching the course.
5. How can out-of-pocket costs and opportunity costs be applied to your personal financial decisions
Out of pocket costs and opportunity costs can be applied to an individual's personal financial decisions by comparing both of these costs. If the benefit of playing an hour of football is more that the benefit of studying for an hour, then the individual should use that hour to play football. If one hour is being spent each day at a tuition center which costs $50/hour for a 4 day week, it would cost $800 for a month using up 16 hours. If these 16 hours are used for other work like taking a horse riding lesson which is $400/month, then financially taking horse riding lesso