Littlewood (1983) noted "Learning refers to conscious process of internalizing a second language. Learning to use a second language freely is a lengthy and complex process. Different people have different criteria for learning language, few stress on accuracy (grammar, vocabulary, listening, written production etc.) while others on fluency (reading, phonology, spoken production, accent, etc.) but almost everyone agree that our primary purpose of language development is to be able to speak in the target language.
However, in recent years the stress is on how to teach languages, which is increasingly guided by the dominant aim of promoting the learner's communicative competence. Similarly, all the recent definitions of language learning also involve communicative point of view by one way or another. "Language learning is a neutral response to communicative needs," says Littlewood (1983). The approach that needs to be taken according to is not all about sentence structure and vocabulary but "it must also involve an understanding of how people use these linguistic forms in order to communicate." suggested Woodhead; Miller; Oshea (1981). Bourges (1964) also claims that "some basic awareness of the total linguistic process" is very essential," otherwise students can never be competent to use the second language. ...Show more