StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

Pharmaceutical Treatment Options for Myasthenia Gravis - Article Example

Not dowloaded yet

Extract of sample
Pharmaceutical Treatment Options for Myasthenia Gravis

The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) has the distinction of being the first site of a defined autoantibody mediated neurological disease, namely myasthenia gravis (MG), which is due to autoantibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) (Vincent, 2002). Other targets at the NMJ include muscle specific kinase (MuSK) in MG patients without AChR antibodies. About 20% of MG patients with generalized disease in Europe, North America and Japan do not have AChR antibodies. These so called 'seronegative' MG patients can be divided into two groups: those with antibodies to MuSK and those without [AChR/MuSK seronegative MG (SN-MG) (Hoch etal, 2001).
In normal neuromuscular transmission depolarization of the presynaptic nerve terminal produces an influx of calcium through voltage-gated calcium channels. Vesicles containing acetylcholine (ACh) then fuse with the presynaptic nerve terminal membrane. After release, ACh interacts with the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) on the muscle endplate surface. This opens the AChR channel, resulting in an influx of cations, largely sodium. Depolarization of the muscle surface produces an excitatory endplate potential, and if the endplate potential is of sufficient amplitude, muscle surface voltage-gated sodium channels are opened. This generates an action potential that eventually results in excitation-contraction coupling and muscle movement. ACh binds transiently to its receptor and then either diffuses from the neuromuscular junction or is hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE), providing a self-limited response to nerve depolarization.
In MG, antibodies are directed against the acetylcholine receptors (AChR antibodies). AChR antibodies interfere with neuromuscular transmission through one of three mechanisms- First, some bind to the AChR cholinergic binding site, blocking the binding of ACh. Second, some AChR antibodies cross-link muscle surface AChRs, increasing their rate of internalization into muscle and reducing the numbers of available AChRs. Third, and perhaps most importantly, AChR antibodies that bind complement result in destruction of the muscle endplate, and a more long-lasting loss of AChRs. Drugs like acetylcholinestrase inhibitors nhibits AChE, increasing the amount of ACh available to interact with available AChRs, thus prolonging the action of Ach, and allowing muscle contraction.
Pharmacological treatment
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are the first pharmacological choice in the treatment of MG. Acetylcholinesterase is an acetylcholine-hydrolyzing enzyme which binds the overflowing acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction, keeping the junction clean from excessive transmitter. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors bind to the acetylcholinesterase, inhibiting its action. Pyridostigmine is a more recent long-acting reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors increase the amount of available acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction. This leads to enhanced binding of acetylcholine to the diminished number of AChRs on the myasthenic muscle cell membrane, causing contractility improvement (Millard and Broom field, 1995)

When additional pharmacological tre ...Show more


Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease characterized by a fluctuating pathological weakness with remissions and exacerbations involving one or several skeletal muscle groups, mainly caused by antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the post-synaptic site of the neuromuscular junction (Keesey JC, 2004)…
Author : martinthiel
Pharmaceutical Treatment Options for Myasthenia Gravis essay example
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the article on your topic
"Pharmaceutical Treatment Options for Myasthenia Gravis"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Related Essays

Ethical Dilemma of Illegal Immigrant Seeking Treatment
Susan, one of the emergency department nurses realizes that the patient is not a native speaker because she would not understand his explanation on the cause of his bleeding. Susan seeks the help of a colleague nurse who understood Mexican. The interpretation of the patient’s story reveals that he was hit by a car while crossing the street during one of his job searching escapades.
6 pages (1500 words) Article
Positive emotions in the treatment of depression
Despite these, depression still remains very common, especially among the adult population. This article talks about depression and its cure. Different approaches to depression are currently available, among which is anti-depressants. However, this solution can only offer immediate relief while putting the patient at risk for health problems caused by side effects of drugs.
5 pages (1250 words) Article
Noncompliance to Treatment with Positive Airway Pressure

The study had employed a retrospective medical chart review on its  design since the information on medical records are valid and were collected by health care provider compared to using research records that are gathered for the sake of giving information. This research was done in the urban academic context of US. 

5 pages (1250 words) Article
Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Responses to Warm Whirlpool Treatment
Methods: The study used two healthy college age subjects in an experimental design that measured resting heart rate and blood pressure prior to
10 pages (2500 words) Article
Autistic Children in the General Education Classroom: Mainstreaming, Inclusion, and Pull Out Options
In an attempt to research issues associated with Autistic children and identify the impact of mainstreaming, inclusions, and pull out options, the following quantitative research proposal is being considered: Quantitative Design – This study will consist of a quantitative
3 pages (750 words) Article
Autistic Children in the General Education Classroom: Mainstreaming, Inclusion, and Pull Out Options
This study focuses on two main questions: 1. What are the educational practices and strategies employed by special education, general education team and educators to support a successful mainstreaming and inclusion of children with autism in a general education
3 pages (750 words) Article
Cloning Cells for Medical Treatment
In his article, Lane has illustrated the genetic modification of human beings and has described the procedure that can be used to create babies using the eggs of two women. He tells about the research work that is being carried out by a research team in UK whose purpose is the creation of an embryo with the participation of three parents
3 pages (750 words) Article
Research an article that identifies treatment modality
Therapy and counseling are forms of treatment meant to upgrade a persons’ mental well-being. These treatments help people who are experiencing behavior problems, mental health disorder,
1 pages (250 words) Article
Coley's toxins and alternative medicine in cancer treatment
This striking discovery became the base for Coley’s toxins. Initially Coley’s toxins contained active streptococci; however, due to the potential risk of these organisms to cause serious illnesses, he changed the ingredients. William Coley formulated a
3 pages (750 words) Article
The Hope House Hosting the Treatment Works March Event this Year
I have seen an increase in substance use particularly in teens," she added. "There is more focus on substance use, and addiction now and people are more open to getting treatment." In Albany, The Hope House, a non-profit organization, has
2 pages (500 words) Article
Get a custom paper written
by a pro under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Your email
Comments (0)
Rate this paper:
Thank you! Your comment has been sent and will be posted after moderation