Modern revolutions in ways of thinking have taken place, and they resemble in substantial ways the revolutions in thinking of the fourth century B.C. These revolutions occur with great pain and difficulty and have made a lot of people angry, including Plato to a limited extent in the ancient era, and literacy hounds such as Allan Bloom to a great extent in the present era.
The belief persists now that visual texts are inherently inferior to written texts, a belief that has gone through many permutations since the invention of the camera and that has resulted in discussions about the nature of "realism." The unexamined belief in the inferiority of visual texts continues to saturate the academy in the United States.
Many people now will routinely acknowledge the idea that film and video are "artistic" media. However, their own responses to these media often indicate that these newer symbol systems are not in fact taken as seriously as symbol systems such as print or painting or music. The most compelling evidence for this marginalization of newer discourse technologies lies in their integration in general education requirements. They are regarded as peripheral concerns, unrelated to the study of print texts. Aristotelianism," as it has been called derives from print culture. The grammar of film and the grammar of video have not been integrated into enough film.
Classical Rhetoric is a discipline that teaches man the rules and principles ...