The strengths and weaknesses for contesting these ideologies are also addressed.
Unlike any of the previously discussed authors, Kumar (1994) relies on the establishment of a key focal point in just one area; the area of macro-strategies, in order to assist teachers in building their own frameworks with situation-specific classroom techniques in order to effect desired learning outcomes. Also unlike any of the previously noted authors, Kumar (1994) is concerned with the development of various theories, rather than the research of existing ones. The primary goal of the article is to conclude that the framework can be used to transform practitioners into strategic teachers as well as tactical researchers.
Ideologically, Pennycook (2001) is dissimilar to the others in that he tends to concentrate on the policy and implementation of applied linguistics. However, like Kumar (1994), he is able to discuss relative theories and put them into a critical perspective that illustrates how these theories are able to be developed and used by teachers and researchers. Additionally, the goal of his research is to create the realization that the goal is not merely to map micro and macro relations, but to also understand in a much more subtle way, how power circulates at multiple levels.
Savignon (2002) analyzes both the theoretical aspects, as well as the historical influences of communicative language teaching. The primary goal of this article is to dissect the historical processes of communicative language teaching and creating and overall understanding of these perspectives. Savignon (2002) attempts to cover as much of the ideological information, that was also previously discussed by the other authors, without as much attention to detail. The chief objective of her piece is to exhume a permanent understanding of the processes involved, using the work of others to back up her research and ideological findings.
-Explain where you see these theories being most useful to you as a teacher. In other words, what do you gain from adopting some/any of these theoretical perspectives
When put into the appropriate theoretical contextual perspectives, there are a number of these theories that can be adapted and used in teaching. Most notably, Kumar (1994) discusses theories that can assist teachers in developing and creating their own frameworks, in the area of micro-strategies. One macro-strategy in particular, 'facilitate negotiated interaction' (Kumar 1994, p.33) refers to critical learner to learner, and learner to teacher interaction in class. He also points out that the adoption of this theory can be facilitated through various other macro-strategies, designing group activities being one of them (Kumar 1994, p.34). This theory is particularly useful in that it gives teachers a chance to experiment with learning activities, in a group environment, with a chance to test their abilities as a provider of learning.
Pennycook (2001, p.116) theorizes that if we view the classroom as a "microcosm," that social relations in the classroom merely reflect