The Balanced Scorecard

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The concept of the Balanced Scorecard was introduced in the early 1990s with considerable excitement and promised to change the way performance measurement was conducted and how companies were managed. This study is an investigation into the conception of the Balanced Scorecard.


Who and how it is being promoted today, how it is being used to link employee performance to organizational strategy, and how successful have the companies been who have adopted the Scorecard as a performance measurement and strategy implementation tool in the long-term. This study will answer these questions.
"What you measure is what you get" is an often-heard phrase, which emphasizes the importance of performance measurement to the success of an organization. Performance measurement can be defined as the quantification of either a process output or the activities that constitute that process. An effective set of performance measures should have the following characteristics: (a) communicate and summarize those critical activities necessary to meet customer requirements, (b) reflect outputs of processes and outcomes (how customers value the outputs), (c) be comprehensive, and (d) provide feedback to the organization (Atkinson, Waterhouse, & Wells, 1997). Selecting the proper performance measures is one of the key challenges facing management (Ittner & Larcker, 1998), yet it is perhaps the most misunderstood and difficult aspect of a management control systems (Atkinson, Waterhouse et al., 1997).
Performance measures can be financial or non-financial. Financial (or traditional) performance measures are dollar value measures produced by the organization's accounting system. ...
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