When resistors are connected in parallel, their terminals are connected across the voltage source, and the voltage drop across each terminal is the same. But, if the value of resistors is different, the current through the resistor will be different, and accordingly the power dissipated by the resistor will be different.

Step-Up Transformer: Such a transformer, steps up the voltage at the secondary windings. In such a transformer, the number of turns in secondary windings is more than that in primary windings. The proportion in which voltage will be stepped up depends upon the proportion in which the numbers of windings are more in the secondary windings.

Step-Down Transformer: As the name suggests, step down transformer is used to lower the voltage. In such a transformer, the numbers of turns in secondary winding are less than the number of turns in primary. If the numbers of turns in the secondary are half than the primary, then the voltage in the secondary will be half of the primary voltage. Therefore, transformer is a useful device used in AC circuits for dividing or multiplying the voltage levels.

This rule is also applicable to electrically charged particles. Two like charges repel each other while two opposite charges attract each other. The force between the charged particles is defined by the Coulomb's law.

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In such a transformer, the number of turns in secondary windings is more than that in primary windings. The proportion in which voltage will be stepped up depends upon the proportion in which the numbers of windings are more in the secondary windings.

Voltage transformation ratio =

(Number of turns in secondary-N1) / (Number of turns in primary-N2)

For example, If the number of turns in secondary windings are double than primary winding than the voltage will be doubled.

Step-Down Transformer: As the name suggests, step down transformer is used to lower the voltage. In such a transformer, the numbers of turns in secondary winding are less than the number of turns in primary. If the numbers of turns in the secondary are half than the primary, then the voltage in the secondary will be half of the primary voltage. Therefore, transformer is a useful device used in AC circuits for dividing or multiplying the voltage levels.

Q. Explain how the rule for the interaction between magnetic poles compares to the rule for interaction between electrically charged particles.

Ans. The rule for interaction between magnetic poles states, "Opposite magnetic poles attract each other while similar poles repel each other".

This rule is also applicable to electrically charged particles. Two like charges repel each other while two opposite charges attract each other. The force between the charged particles is defined by the Coulomb's
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