Besides, the motivation for a behavior may also be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism or morality. According to Geen (1994), motivation refers to the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of human behavior. In other words, motivation is a state of mind which is influenced by the environment, by those around and above all by us (Yates, 2002).
Researchers have identified basically two kinds of motivation- the intrinsic and the extrinsic motivation. The main purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. Additionally it also examines the effectiveness of both types of motivation and discuss some of the personal views with respect to which process provides the most effective results and why. There are several researchers who have worked and continue to work on intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation, and these studies have shed light on their impact on individuals on both developmental and educational practices (Ryan and Deci, 2000).
In general, intrinsic motivation occurs when people are internally motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they are learning is morally significant. For example, in a husband and wife relationship unless both are motivated to be faithful, happy and committed to each other or are intrinsically motivated, it is impossible for them to be happy. Another example is if a child is studying out of real interest in the subjects and his curiousness to learn about the subject, it can be said that the child is intrinsically motivated.
On the other hand extrinsic motivation can be explained as if a person is motivated to take an action after gaining the knowledge of the rewards. In other words extrinsically motivated behaviors are actions that result in the accomplishment of externally administered rewards, such as pay, material possessions, status, and positive evaluations from others (Bateman and Crant, N.D.). For example, when a student is compelled to achieve distinction in his exams because of the prize announced by the teacher can be considered as extrinsic motivation. The student does not learn the subjects out of the real interest on the subjects but due to pressure. While it is debated that intrinsic motivation plays a major role in reflecting the natural human propensity to learn and assimilate, extrinsic motivation differs considerably in its relative autonomy and thus can either be a sign of external control or true self-regulation (Ryan and Deci, 2000).
Motivation influences productivity, and I believe it is essential to understand what motivates people to reach peak performance. It is not an easy task to increase their motivation because they respond in different ways. Motivation among different category of people differs. For instance, a child of 2-3 years may differ from a school going child in motivation. A teenager may differ from the adult. An employee may differ from the business owner. Therefore in all these cases there are different intrinsic and extrinsic motivations and researchers have studied in depth on these issues. And most of them agree that motivation in general is something that energizes, direct, and sustains behaviors (fiu.edu, N.D.).
If we take a look at the work of early researchers it can be seen that the extrinsic motivat