Stylistically, the prelude is improvisatory in nature. The prelude can also refer to an overture, particularly to those seen in an opera or an oratorio. Prelude can be referring to as a preface. It can stand on its own or introduce another work.
Overture in music is the instrumental introduction to a dramatic, choral (1911encyclopedia.org) or, occasionally, instrumental composition. It is used as an opening to a larger dramatic work such as an opera. Overture also referred to collections of movements, known as suites. (wikipedia.com).
A sinfonie is a musical composition, the extended and used for orchestra. It does not imply a specific form. There are sinfonies that are tonal works in four movements with the first in sonata form, and it is often described by music theorists as the structure of a classical (reference.com) sinfonie.
The very first preludes were lute compositions of the Renaissance era. They were free improvisations and served as brief introductions to larger pieces of music or particular larger and more complex movements; lutenists also used them to test the instrument or the acoustics of the room before performing. In the 17th century in France the keyboard preludes started. During this century the duration of each note is left to the performer. The first composer who embrace the genre is Louis Couperin, and harpsichord preludes were used until the first half of the 18th century by numerous composers including Jean-Henri d'Anglebert (1629-1691), lisabeth Jacquet de la Guerre (1665-1729), Franois Couperin (1668-1733) and Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683-1764), whose very first printed piece (1706) was in this form. The last unmeasured preludes for harpsichord date from the 1710s. Prelude in the 17th century in Germany led to a sectional form similar to keyboard toccatas Johann Jakob Froberger or Girolamo Frescobaldi. Outside Germany, Abraham van den Kerckhoven (c.1618-c.1701), one of the most important Dutch composers of the period, used this model for some of his preludes. Southern and central German composers did not follow the sectional model and their preludes remained improvisational in character with little or no strict counterpoint. In the second half of 17th century prelude are being paired with figures in the same key. Preludes were also used by some 20th century composers when writing Baroque-inspired "suites". Such works include Ravel's Le Tombeau de Couperin (1914/17) and Schoenberg's
Suite for piano, Op. 25 (1921/23), both of which begin with an introductory prelude. Ludwig van Beethoven wrote two preludes, Op. 39; each one cycles through all of the major keys of the piano.
Evolution of Overture
Overture was formulated during the 17th century. As a musical form overture begins with the works of J-B Lully (1911encyclopedia.org). He devised the scheme that constitutes the typical French overture up to the time (1911encyclopedia.org) of Johann Sebastian Bach and George Friderich Handel. This French ouverture consists of a slow introduction in a marked "dotted rhythm" (1911encyclopedia.org), followed by a lively movement in fugato style. The slow introduction was always repeated, and sometimes the quick movement concluded by returning to the slow tempo, (1911encyclopedia.org) usually with new motivic material but occasionally recapitulating the opening, and this combined fast-slow material was sometimes also repeated. The operatic