Chain of command includes authority and unity of command. Span of control in the number of subordinates a manager can efficiently and effectively directs. Centralization is the degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organization. Consistent with the recent management efforts to make organization more flexible and responsive, there has been a marked trend towards decentralizing decision making. In a decentralized organization, action can be taken more quickly to solve problems, more people provide input into decisions, and employees are less likely to feel alienated from those who make the decisions that affect their work lives. Finally formalization refers to the degree to which jobs within the organization are standardized. If a job is highly formalized, then the job incumbent has a minimum amount of discretion. . When formalization is low job behaviors are relatively non-programmed and employees have to freedom to exercise discretion in their work.
In the County general hospital, reorganization of the structure of the administration teams within each department has to take place. To date, administrative staff within each department had reported solely to an administrative manager. ...
Its major disadvantage is the difficulty to coordinating the task of diverse functional specialists so that their activities are completed on time and within budget. Service departmentalization on the other hand exactly the opposite benefits and advantages. It facilitates coordination among specialties to achieve on time completion and meet the budget targets. Furthermore, it provides clear responsibility for all activities related to a service, but with duplication of activities and costs. The matrix structure attempts to gain the strengths of each, while avoiding their weaknesses (Anderson, 1994). The strength of the matrix lies in its ability to facilitate coordination when the organization has a multiplicity of complex and interdependent activities. The direct and frequent contacts between the different specialists in the matrix can make for better communication and more flexibility. Information permeates the organization and more quickly reaches the people who need to take account of it. It facilitates the efficient allocation of specialists. When individuals with highly specialized skills are lodged in one functional department or service group, their talents are monopolized and under used. The matrix achieves the advantages of economies of scale by providing the organization with both the best resources and the effective way of ensuring their efficient deployment. The major disadvantage of the matrix lies in the dual command chain. This results in confusion and ambiguity, role conflict and more stress to workers. But over the past decade, senior managers are working with new structural options that can better help their organizations to