The concept of city-states began with them and they were known to practice some religious beliefs because of the ziggurats or the terraced temples.
2. AKKADIANS: The Akkadians who were natives of central Mesopotamia, had their own Akkadian writing using the cuneiform. Authors like Ziomkowski and Spielvogel claimed that they invented the stamps and instituted regular postal services and cadastral survey (3;6). Noble (18) said they gave us the first great warlord known to mankind and this was Sargon.
3. BABYLONIANS OR AMORITES: These inhabited lower Mesopotamia or near the Tigris-Euphrates delta. But with the conquest of the Akkadians and the Sumerians, King Hammurabi was able to carve a kingdom that unified almost the whole of Mesopotamia. Hammurabi then established the Code of Hammurabi, which was a list of judgments stressing fairness and justice among citizens. They then devised a calendar, consisting of 12 lunar months, with 30 days for each month and with 24 hours for each day. They also had a system
4. ASSYRIANS: These were warlike people in upper Mesopotamia who first utilized iron weapons and made use of chariots and cavalry. They invented battering rams and mobile towers to ensure victory in wars as well as what Noble(66) calls sapper work or excavation methods to undermine city walls of enemies.
5. 5. NEO-BABYLONIANS OR CHALDEANS: Led by King Nebuchadnezzar, these accomplished people who made a mark in astronomy, agriculture and the construction of buildings such as The Hanging Gardens of Babylon, will always be remembered for the destruction of Jerusalem and the captivity of the Jews (Noble et al 44).
6. LYDIANS: These inhabited the now northwestern Turkey and they were noted for their wealth and the beauty of its capital Sardis. Under King Croesus, they invented coinage and its minting using gold, silver and electrum. They were also the first to put up retail shops.
7. PERSIANS: These were people, who together with the Medes, occupied present day Iran.
They will always be remembered because of their great warrior kings Cyrus the Great, Darius the Great and Xerxes who built one of the largest empire in the world. They also brought Zoroastrianism and a system of governance that divided the empire into 20 provinces, each ruled by a satrap and a system of road building as well as improvement of trade and a barter economy.
8. EGYPTIANS: These people were superb engineers, architects and builders. Denizens of the Nile River delta and oases, they constructed 35 pyramids, temples, obelisks and palaces. They established the art of mummification and the belief of immortality after death. They invented hieroglyphic writing on papyrus and the use of Rosetta stone to encrypt these writings. They devised irrigation and agricultural techniques and an efficient administration techniques under a vizier as well as the concept of Ma'at (Noble 25) or justice and the empowerment of