With input, the focus should be on the student and the extent to which he understands (Gass et al 1994). Researchers admit that nonuse takes place when the information contained in the input is included into a learner's grammar. However, the fact that the information is already included into a grammar does not necessarily exclude it from being utilized--although it may be used in a different way from what one normally thinks of. When the information contained in the input is already a part of one's knowledge base, the additional input might be used for rule strengthening or hypothesis reconfirmation. Part of becoming a fluent speaker of a second language involves the automatic retrieval of information from one's knowledge base. The knowledge base is developed through practice or repeated exposure to exemplars. Thus, information that may appear redundant may be serving an important purpose in terms of the access the learner has to that information (Jonassen and Hannum 1998).
2. Feedback is important technique in learning because it helps a student to understand his mistakes and correct them at once. Feedback should be supported by events such as motivating students, communicating the learning objectives, directing students' attention, activating related knowledge, providing guidance, promoting transfer (generalization), eliciting performance, and providing feedback. ...Show more