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Today's contemporary and dominantly capitalist societies provide a contrasting look into the lives of people who live under the authoritarian rule-societies that do not promote materialism, capitalism, and provide people with the freedom to be their own selves…
Superimposing real life against the literary lives of characters in the famous works of Vladimir Nabokov, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Henry James, and Jane Austen, Nafisi demonstrated how literature acts more as a reflection than artistic expression of social realities that these authors experienced during their times.
Nafisi addressed numerous social issues and injustices that occurred among Iranians, in general, and women, in particular, in the society she lives in. Despite this multitude of issues, she centered her discussion more on four major themes that corresponded with each part of the book. These four major themes are: (1) the creation of a "new and different world" by the oppressed Muslim women in Tehran; (2) analysis of Western culture and ideals vis--vis Iranian culture and ideals; (3) courage and defiance from a stubbornly defiant traditional society; and (4) integration of the three preceding themes-the enactment of women's revolution, summoning their courage to pursue their own 'new worlds' and defy and protest the oppressive nature of their society.
The central argument presented in Nafisi's memoir, in effect, is the integration of these themes: the concept of Upsilamba, of creating a new and different ...
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