This can be followed when there is enough Insurance for the ship and the cargo. I t is important to know to whom the insurance is named after and whether the insurance is assigned to a bank under a loan agreement. The extent of the insurance should be known for there may be uncovered items. Then there is Freight Management which is the provision of voyage orders and other information to enable the master to plan and undertake the voyage, of voyage estimates and accounts, the calculation of hire and freights, dispatch and demurrage and the arrangement of the correct collection and payment of all charter hire and freight monies. Fifth would be Accounting which is the accurate records of accounts. Sixth is Chartering which is the owner's instructions. Proper coordination with the owner, or a selected organization, is crucial to avoid mistakes. Next is Vessel Sales and Purchase. This is a major activity where the exchange of the purchase price with the deed of sale of the ship along with the physical asset. Eighth is Provisions and Bunkering. This is the negotiation for competitive prices for optimum quality for shipment. Then we have Operation, which includes voyage estimates, voyage instructions, appointment of agents and stevedores and the arrangements for surveying cargoes. ...
Seaworthiness and cargoworthiness always go hand in hand. As an overview, seaworthiness is the shipowner's responsibility to see the ship is fit for travel and cargowothiness is the responsibility to make the cargo hulls safe for the cargo and the cargo safe for transport.
Related directly as the shipowner's right to limit his liabilities, the concept is of seaworthiness is a very important in legal context. This is achieved by proper preparation at the start of the voyage. This means that the ship must be properly manned, equipped and supplied. The parts of the ship in which the good are carried must be fit and safe for receipt, carriage and preservation. At the event that cargo is not at par with the cargo owner's desires, the right to limit the liabilities can then be challenged at court.
The concept of cargoworthiness relates as the consideration associated with fitness for purpose and condition. This is now the cargo owner's task to see that his products are properly transported. This is important for both the cargo and ship owner's because it will definitely limit future problems with substandard shipments.
Furthermore, the cargo must be properly loaded, stowed, carried, discharged and delivered. This now is the mainly the responsibility of the cargo owner, although it does go hand in hand with the shipowner's task of keeping the ship seaworthy. Even if the ship is of perfect condition for cargo containment, without the proper handling and transport of the cargo to and from the vessel, it is still likely that the goods are to be damaged.
3. The process involved in amending (in 1995) the STCW convention and ensuring that it operates consistently and effectively
Back in 1974 when the STCW convention was first introduced, it was