After some time we have seen that the lock on the main door was broken & the door is open.As the problem becomes big & big it is very hard to solve the problem and also the control the reoccurrence of the problem. Due to lack of time we are not able to repair the lock & the door remain open. After some time we found the glasses fixed on windows are also broken and the floor of the house is full of waste material. Time to time the condition of the house became worst. The material inside the house was theft and every thing was broken within a short span of time. If the lock of the door was repaired in time then definitely there will not be such damage in the house. So the broken window theory clearly state that if we take action initially then we can prevent big damage and crime. For this State of New Jersey announced a "Safe and Clean Neighborhoods Program designed to improve the quality of community life in twenty-eight cities. According to this program, police officer should move in the city without vehicle means they need to move on foot to minimize crime. The objective is to secure the citizen. Citizens in the foot patrol areas had a more favorable opinion of the police than did those living elsewhere. And officers walking beats had higher morale, greater job satisfaction, and a more favorable attitude toward citizens in their neighborhoods than did officers assigned to patrol cars. Jacob found the relationship between the environmental factors and the people. Jacob found how physical & social urban factor affect the life of people. Jacob discovered how environmental factors cause prevention of crime. Jacob hypothesized that urban residential crime could be prevented by reducing conditions of anonymity and isolation in that area. Jacob thought that crime rate is increasing due to attitude of the people towards their neighbors. Even neighbors do not recognize each others. That's why they do not know whether the stranger entering into the society is a member of society or not. Jocb stated that high levels of natural surveillance created a safe environment. According to Jacob one of our best protections against crime is to live in a community where neighbors watch out for each other and stand ready to call the police or to intervene directly where they spot a criminal.
(c.) Explain Duneier's criticism of the broken windows theory as applied to the Greenwich Village vendors and panhandlers he studied.
Greenwich vendors & panhandlers were first studied by Jane Jacobs in 1961, after that she wrote a book "The Death and Life of Great American Cities, which represented Greenwich Village sidewalk interaction as the ideal for what makes up a "great" American city. Duneier revisited the Jacobs principal by went back to the neighborhood. On the sidewalk, he studied the vendors who are not having houses, scavengers, and panhandlers. While side walking he found that the people are filled with illegality, personal defect, and shame and also a world of mutual support, struggles for respectability, ingenuity, and resilience. Duneier's main agenda was to understand the ways in which "moral" behavior and "decency" affects the crime. He also found that the sidewalk was quite different than it was when Jacobs described it, when "eyes and ears upon the street" were presumed to make sidewalk life safe and comfortable. His method was participant observation, and he worked as a magazine scavenger and street vendor on and off during