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Breast Cancer - Essay Example

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Breast Cancer

When transcription is not sufficiently balanced, it becomes detrimental to the cell and can cause cancer (Cox & Goding, 1991). It is therefore important to secure a comprehensive understanding of transcription because efforts to carry out corrections to the process can be implemented in instances when issues in the process are apparent.
Discussed specifically, the first stage of the transcription process, is seen when the RNA Polymerase-Promoter Complex would bind to the promoter gene in the DNA (Mukakami, et.al., 2001). Such binding also leads to the initiation of the RNA polymerase. The sigma protein has to be present in order for the promoter enzyme to work. Particular sequences on the non-coding strand of the DNA are considered as a signal which would start the unwinding process (Mukakami, et.al., 2001). When the process has been started, the RNA polymerase elongation enzyme then takes over and the second stage of the transcription process manifests. ...
f the transcription process or the termination stage the uracil triphosphate or the UTP is added to the RNA through a pairing with the adenine (A) nucleotide on the template DNA strand (Gnatt, et.al., 2001). A phosphodiester bond is then formed and the RNA chain is stretched to 10 nucleotides; the excess diphosphate is expected to dissociate (Gnatt, et.al., 2001).
A recent study in embryonic stem cells has revealed a transcription control mechanism that is pervasive and regulated by the gene c-Myc which causes cancer. This study has also discovered a pausing step in the transcription process which regulates the expression of about 80% of genes in mammal cells (Medical News, 2010). The long-accepted perception is that DNA-binding transcription factors include the RNA polymerase Pol II to promoters in order to start off the transcription process. Researchers now claim that additional factors for promoters stop transcription as soon as it begins its process (Medical News, 2010). This means that even as the normal cell processes are being carried out transcription already has faulty qualities. There is a need to engage the transcription process - and this can be a function of factor c-Myc. The pause-release role of the c-Myc is relevant in transcription because over-expression of c-Myc is seen in different tumors and the c-Myc's failure to release transcriptional pausing is associated with the increase of cancer cells (Medical News, 2010). These results from various studies are however, still not definitive.
I am now interested in investigating the relationship of the over-expression of c-Myc in causing tumors, or more particularly, breast cancer. I propose that c-Myc has a major role in causing tumors, including breast cancer. ...Show more

Summary

Transcription, in its simplest conceptualization is the synthesis of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) from a DNA template (McClean, 1998). Whether it is prokaryotic or eukaryotic, it first undergoes the process of initiation where there is a binding of RNA polymerase to double-strand DNA; then the second process follows called elongation where there is a development of a short stretch of DNA which is mostly of a single-strand (McClean, 1998); the last stage is the termination stage where there is a recognition of the transcription termination sequence (McClean, 1998)…
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Breast Cancer essay example
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