The Triple Constraints Model of Project Management

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Turner (1991: 2) states that there are three dimensions to project management: the project itself, the process of managing the project and the various levels within in the project. Each is inter-related and further is necessary steps to ensure success of the project.


Turner (1991) defines project management as "the art and science of converting vision into reality" (p. 3). In the following paragraphs we will discuss the three steps to project management and discuss how this theory differs from traditional project management theories.
As outline above the fist dimension is that of the project itself which he defines as "an endeavourdesigned to produce some novel, unitary objective from which we expect to derive new benefits" (p. 5). The key is to understand what needs to be accomplished (the plan) and the amount of time to accomplish it while still ensuring quality. Flexibility, innovation, cooperation and a sense of urgency are important characteristics. Turner (1991) stresses that the project manager must focus on the results, what it is the project is to accomplish. Focusing on anything less increases the opportunity for failure or deviation"ensure that all work done delivers essential project objectives" (Turner, 1991: 7). To accomplish this five essential functions are involved: "scope of the work, the organization (the people who do the work), quality, cost and duration" (Turner, 1991: 7). The last three he stresses, although important, are merely constraints; without the project or people there would be no project.
The second dimension of this theory is the management process, which takes the vision or dream and makes it the reality, the outcome. ...
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