Institutionalized racism produces discriminatory effects on health through public policy, the physical environment, social and medical services and preventive health policy.
The studies conducted by various organizations and individuals shows that the practice of racism is prevails in the criminal justice system also. There is recent evidence (from the 2000 British Crime Survey) that black and particularly Asian people are more likely than whites to say that the criminal justice system is effective in bringing offenders to justice, dealing with cases promptly and efficiently, and meeting the needs of crime victims. But at the same time Minority ethnic people were less confident that the system respected the rights of suspects and treated them fairly, and black respondents especially were less likely than whites to believe that the police treated witnesses well (Mirrlees-Black, 2001)(1).
Whatever it is, it is important to explore the field of probation practice and the treatment of minority ethnic groups in the criminal justice system, to identify the criminogenic needs of black and Asian offenders, and to explore their views about probation supervision, and to inform decisions about appropriate service provision.
Thereby we can have a deep look into the p...
1. Mirrlees-Black, C. (2001) Confidence in the Criminal Justice System: Findings from the 2000 British Crime Survey. Research Findings No. 137, London: Home Office.
Thereby we can have a deep look into the probation practice to diversity in working with these Black and Asians .Moreover we can corroborate the possibility that people from minority ethnic groups may be subject to disadvantageous treatment at all stages of the criminal justice process, even if this does not result from overt racist discrimination (Phillips and B rown, 1998).(2)
Before going to explore the areas of diversities in the probation practice regarding the black and Asian offenders, it will be helpful to have look on the scope of probation practices and criminal justice system.
Probation service and Criminal Justice System
The National Probation Service is a law enforcement agency delivering community punishment, supervising offenders within terms set by courts & the parole board and working with offenders to reduce their re-offending & to protect the public. It is an integral part of the criminal justice system. The criminal justice system is defined by government as:(3) (1)Home Office - police, prison and the probation service,
2) Lord Chancellor's Department - crown and magistrates' courts and court of appeal
3) Law Officers' department - crown prosecution and serious fraud office.
This informal supervision was given a statutory basis by the Probation of Offenders Act 1907, which allowed courts to appoint and employ probation officers. They were required to advise, assist and befriend