It is importnt tht competing demnds nd pproches not prlyze mngers but insted provide cumultive nd integrtive improvements to ledership effectiveness.
In view of bove, current pper provides impiricl pproch towrd the concpet of ledership. Bsing on the book of Chrles Mnz nd Henry Sims, The New SuperLedership, where the principl of self-ledership is peoneered, present discussion covers theorieticl review nd prcticl impliction of types of ledership. It is the im of this pper to present new content nd exmples designed to help leders develop the kind of utonomous, quick-recting workforce necessry to thrive in these turbulent times. I first introduce the theory of ledership styles. Through the discussion of two types of ledrship, I grdully comme to the discussion of effective ledership techniques nd end up with personl model of ledership. Using the exmples of two leders this pper is gret reflection of efficient nd inefficient pproch to ledership.
Drwing on contemporry exmples nd profiles, mny from the high-tech nd informtion sectors, Mnz nd Sims shtter the myth of the trditionl, ggrndized versions of "heroic" ledership. They show tht leder truly becomes successful by turning followers into extrordinry self-leders-pillrs of strength tht will support the orgniztion t every level. They detil series of ction-oriented steps through which the SuperLeder provides n opportunity for followers to express nd develop their own ledership skills-nd in the process become highly motivted, dynmic contributors.
The typology of ledershi introduced by uthors describes four brod ledership rchetypes: strongmn, trnsctor, visionry hero, nd SuperLeder.
The strongmn relies on uthority nd coercion to mke subordintes perform the tsks.
Coercion, s mens of influencing the behvior of others, depends upon the expecttion of specified positive or negtive consequences. Coercive power requires tht the expecttion of consequences be reproduced consistently. The continued ppliction of these consequences is usully enough to ensure tht others' behvior will continue to be influenced. Coercion is esy to estblish but costly to mintin since the expecttions of others must be met if their behvior is going to be influenced beyond the previous instnce. uthority is the opposite: it is difficult to estblish but once in plce it is highly effective mens of influencing behvior since specific consequences, nd the inculction of the expecttion of them, re not required.
While often considered relic of pst mngeril prctice, mny contemporry leders still employ this uthoritrin style.
The trnsctor uses rewrds nd snctions to motivte employees. Positive reinforcement not only shpes behvior but lso teches nd in the process enhnces personl self-imge s Chrles Mnz nd Henry Sims note, the wy the reinforcement is crried out is more importnt thn the mount. First, it ought to be specific, incorporting s much informtion content s possible. Second, the reinforcement should hve immedicy. Third, the system of feedbck mechnisms should tke ccount of chievbility. Compnies should rewrd smll wins. Good news swpping is common in the excellent compnies. The fourth chrcteristic is tht fir mount of the feedbck comes in the form of intngible but meningful ttention from top mngement.
The third type, visionry hero, uses inspirtion nd vision to motivte employees. SuperLeders ccomplish this by encourging individuls to set their own gols, monitor