The Knowledge Category Model categorises knowledge into discrete elements. The most renowned of these models is the model by Nonaka and Takeuchi, The Knowledge Spiral Model. In this model there are some assumptions that have been made. The first assumption is that tacit knowledge can be transferred to others and become their tacit knowledge through the process of socialisation. The second assumption is that through externalisation, tacit knowledge can become explicit knowledge. The third assumption is that through internalisation, explicit knowledge can be converted to tacit knowledge. The fourth and the last assumption is that combination helps in making our explicit knowledge the explicit knowledge of others.
Another model is this category is that of Boisot, 1998. There are four characteristics of this model, when knowledge is codified and un-diffused than it is propriety knowledge, it is basically on a need to know basis. The second characteristic is that when knowledge is un-codified and un-diffused it is personal knowledge. The third type of knowledge according to this model is public knowledge and this is codified and diffused. The last type of knowledge is common sense.
The second category of Knowledge Management is Intellectual Capital Models. ...
The model assumes that intellectual capital can be broken down into two categories: human capital and organisational or structural capital.
The third category of Knowledge Management is Socially Constructed Models. In this model knowledge is linked with social and learning process of the organisation. Demerest's, 1997 Knowledge Management model of Socially Constructed Models, is developed from the work of Clark and Staunton, 1989 and Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995. This model does not assume any particular definition of knowledge but has a broader and holistic view of the construction of knowledge. The model works in stages, it firstly constructs knowledge within the organisation, then there is embodiment of this knowledge, this knowledge is then spread across the organisation. Finally, this knowledge is put to use by using it to gain economic value.
McAdam and McCreedy, 1998, have developed a modified version of this model. It is called the Modified Version of Demerest's Knowledge Management Model. The focus of the model is not on the social but also the scientific view of knowledge construction, capture and interpretation.
There are three basic models of Knowledge Management: knowledge category models, intellectual capital models and socially constructed models. Within each model there are further models.
Knowledge Category Models
This category has three models within it; the Knowledge Spiral Model, by Nonaka & Takeuchi, the Knowledge Management Model by Hedlund & Nonaka and the Knowledge Category Model by Boisot.
The first of these the Knowledge Spiral Model, by Nonaka & Takeuchi, describes knowledge as a combination of tacit and explicit. From this they have come up with four processes: